Digital Biome

Risk Factors for Household Vector Abundance Using Indoor CDC Light Traps in a High Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Zambia


Malaria transmission is dependent on the density and distribution of mosquito vectors, but drivers of vector abundance have not been adequately studied across a range of transmission settings. To inform intervention strategies for high-burden areas, further investigation is needed to identify predictors of vector abundance. Active household (HH) surveillance was conducted in Nchelenge district, Luapula Province, northern Zambia, a high-transmission setting with limited impact of malaria control. Between April 2012 and July 2017, mosquitoes were collected indoors during HH visits using CDC light traps. Demographic, environmental, and climatological correlates of vector abundance were identified using log-binomial regression models with robust standard errors. The primary malaria vectors in this setting were Anopheles funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles gambiae s.s. Anopheles funestus predominated in both seasons, with a peak in the dry season. Anopheles gambiae peaked at lower numbers in the rainy season. Environmental, climatic, and demographic factors were correlated with HH vector abundance. Higher vector counts were found in rural areas with low population density and among HHs close to roads and small streams. Vector counts were lower with increasing elevation and slope. Anopheles funestus was negatively associated with rainfall at lags of 2-6 weeks, and An. gambiae was positively associated with rainfall at lags of 3-10 weeks. Both vectors had varying relationships with temperature. These results suggest that malaria vector control in Nchelenge district should occur throughout the year, with an increased focus on dry-season transmission and rural areas.

Year of Publication
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Start Page
Number of Pages
Date Published